What Is Anemia In Children?
Anemia in children is a common syndrome in childhood, due to nutrition, trauma or disease reasons, make red blood cell production decreased, or increased red blood cell loss, or premature destruction of red blood cells, resulting in unit blood red blood cells, hemoglobin and hematocrit below normal, or one of them is significantly lower than normal.
What Is The Symptoms Of Anemia In Children?
Generally manifested as pale skin (such as face, helix, palm), mucosa (such as eyelid conjunctiva, oral mucosa) and nail bed, the course of a long patient, mental fatigue, dry hair, malnutrition, growth and development delay.
How To Check For Anemia In Children?
Since anemia can affect the child's growth and development as well as the function of vital organs (heart, lung, gastrointestinal tract and nervous system), children should be screened for anemia through regular physical examination according to the requirements of child insurance after birth so as to avoid serious consequences.
Parents should visit a doctor in time if they find a child with pale skin, mucous membranes and nail beds, easily tired or depressed, slow growth and development, etc.
The visiting department is usually pediatrics in a general hospital, or general internal medicine or hematology in a children's hospital.
How To Prevent For Anemia In Children?
Iron supplementation should be noticed for small infants with premature delivery, twins or multiple births, and severe anemia during pregnancy of the mother.
After the addition of complementary foods, foods rich in iron should be taken as soon as possible, such as red meat, rice paste with high iron content, animal liver, and so on. Attention should be paid to balanced nutrition, appropriate matching of animal and vegetable products, and scientific feeding.
For children with G6PD deficiency, children and nursing mothers should pay attention to avoid broad bean or broad bean products (such as vermicelli), and some drugs with oxidative properties, such as antimalarial drugs, sulfone, sulfonamides, antipyretic analgesia (such as aspirin, antipyrine, aminopyrine, baotaisong, acetaminophen, finasteride), high dose of vitamin K, amino furan, some Chinese patent medicine, etc.)
In addition, pay attention to prevent the occurrence of diseases (such as frequent hand washing, less frequent visits to crowded places during the period of high incidence of diseases and avoiding people in contact with infectious diseases) and viral or bacterial infection may cause anemia aggravation in children with thalassemia or G6PD deficiency.
Hemophiliac children, should pay attention to form the habit of quiet life, in order to try to avoid trauma bleeding. Medication should consult a doctor at ordinary times, avoid the use of aspirin and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, avoid intramuscular injection, such as surgical diseases need surgical treatment, should pay attention to supplement coagulation factors.
For adults, pay attention to premarital examination, try to avoid poor patients or gene carriers marriage. If both husband and wife are poor, children have a higher probability of severe poverty, prenatal care should be taken to screen.
How To Treat Anemia In Children?
For anemia, it is necessary to see a doctor first to determine the cause, and then to treat the cause.
What diseases may anemia in children be related to?
Insufficient production of red blood cells and hemoglobin
Lack of hematopoietic substances: Common such as iron deficiency (iron deficiency anemia), vitamin B12 and folic acid deficiency (megaloblastic anemia).
The last three months of pregnancy are the time when the fetus obtains the most iron from the mother. Therefore, if the baby premature birth, twins or multiple births, pregnant mothers serious iron deficiency and other reasons, will reduce the iron storage of the fetus. Those with these factors should receive iron supplementation as soon as possible under the guidance of a doctor.
4 ~ 6 months after birth, the baby's body reserves of iron will gradually not enough for the body, milk, cereal, iron content in the food is low, if not timely add more iron supplements, iron deficiency anemia will easily occur. This is the most common cause of anemia in children. In case of iron deficiency anemia caused by unreasonable addition of supplementary foods, besides timely supplementation of iron supplements, attention should be paid to intake of foods high in iron for children, such as red meat, rice paste with high iron content, etc.
In addition, chronic diarrhea, chronic intestinal bleeding (such as intestinal polyps, Meckel's diverticulum, diaphragmatic hernia, ancylostomiasis, intestinal allergy, etc.), can cause intestinal chronic blood loss can also cause poor absorption of iron or loss too much, and the occurrence of iron deficiency anemia. These diseases need to be treated according to the specific situation after face diagnosis, in addition to iron supplement or intake of iron-rich food.
If children who add complementary foods have a serious partial diet and eat less meat, vegetables and other foods, it will lead to vitamin B12 and folic acid deficiency, and the occurrence of megaloblastic anemia. Goat-fed children are also prone to folic acid deficiency because goat's milk is very low in folic acid. The routine blood test of megaloblastic anemia shows that it is macrocytic anemia. If you ask about the feeding condition, it can be confirmed based on the routine blood test and determination of serum vitamin B12 and folic acid. The anemia can be effectively improved by administering vitamin B12 and/or folic acid.
Bone marrow hematopoietic dysfunction: Such as aplastic anemia, pure red blood cell aplastic anemia, leukemia, and so on.
Aplastic anemia should be noted in children with pancytopenia.
Pure red cell aplastic anemia should be noted in infants with severe anemia and reticulocytosis within 1 year of birth, especially in infants with congenital malformations.
For acute onset, rapid progress, the condition is heavier, accompanied by fever anemia, pay attention to the possibility of leukemia, hemogram visible red blood cells and hemoglobin are reduced, lower reticulocyte, white blood cells increased (primitive cells and immature cells accounted for the majority), thrombocytopenia.
The treatment of these diseases is special, and you need to see a hematology specialist to guide your treatment, such as hematopoietic stem cell transplantation, immunosuppressive therapy, component transfusion, chemotherapy, induction therapy, molecular targeted therapy, nutritional support, and so on.
Infection or some chronic diseases cause insufficient production of red blood cells or hemoglobin.
Hemolytic anemia is divided into two types: intrinsic red blood cell abnormalities and red blood cell extrinsic factors.
Erythrocyte intrinsic abnormality
- Erythrocyte membrane structure defects, such as hereditary spherocytosis, hereditary elliptical polycythemia, echinocytosis, paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria, etc.
- Erythrocyte enzyme deficiency, such as G6PD deficiency, pyruvate kinase deficiency, etc.
- Hemoglobin synthesis structure abnormalities, such as thalassemia, hemoglobin disease, etc.
These diseases are usually related to heredity, and people with positive family history should pay attention to the investigation. Generally give symptomatic treatment, such as jaundice neonate to refund the yellow treatment (such as phototherapy or exchange transfusion), anemia is serious to give blood transfusion, hemolytic crisis or aplastic crisis to splenectomy, and so on. Quiescent and mild thalassemia do not require treatment. Iron removal treatment should be noticed in severe thalassemia. People with G6PD deficiency should pay attention to the removal of precipitating factors (such as certain foods, drugs, and infection).
Erythrocyte external factor
- Immunity (such as neonatal hemolysis, autoimmune anemia, drug-induced immune hemolysis), infection, physical and chemical factors, toxins, hypersplenism, disseminated intravascular coagulation and other factors, will destroy the red blood cells and anemia. In these cases, we should pay attention to removing the precipitating factors, treating the primary diseases, and symptomatic treatment.
For example, severe trauma, immune thrombocytopenia, hemophilia, long-term chronic epistaxis, food allergy, parasites and other gastrointestinal diseases caused by long-term hidden bleeding in the intestine and so on.
These conditions can be diagnosed according to the history, symptoms and related examinations, and patients are given symptomatic treatment, treatment of primary diseases, control of bleeding, and blood transfusion for patients with severe anemia. After these treatments, anemia can generally be corrected.