Azoospermia (Absence Of Motile (and Hence Viable) Sperm In The Semen)

Body Parts: Reproductive Site
Medical Subjects: Men's Health

What Is Azoospermia

Azoospermia refers to the absence of sperm through microscopic examination after the ejected semen is centrifuged and precipitated.


What Is The Cause Of Azoospermia

Azoospermia can be divided into two categories, the first type is testicular spermatogenic dysfunction, sperm can not be produced, also known as true azoospermia. The second type is testicular spermatogenic function is normal, but the duct obstruction, sperm can't discharge in vitro, also known as obstructive azoospermia.

Spermatogenesis Disorder

  1. Hereditary diseases: The abnormalities of autosome or sex chromosome affect the spermatogenesis of testis, such as Klinefelter syndrome.
  2. Congenital testicular abnormalities: Abnormal testicular development or abnormal testicular position can cause spermatogenesis disorders.
  3. Lesions of the testis itself: such as testicular trauma, inflammation, torsion, and testicular vasculopathy.
  4. Endocrine diseases, pituitary gland hyperfunction or hypofunction, pituitary gland tumor, adrenal gland hyperfunction or hypofunction, hyperthyroidism or hypothyroidism can all affect spermatogenesis and cause azoospermia.
  5. Severe systemic disease and malnutrition can also cause azoospermia.
  6. Radiation damage or taking drugs, especially cytotoxic drugs, make the testicular spermatogenic cell damage, serious when can cause azoospermia.

Obstructive Azoospermia

Patients had normal secondary sexual characteristics, libido and sexual function, normal testicular development and spermatogenesis, but no sperm was excreted due to obstruction of the ductus deferens.

Causes Include:

  1. Congenital malformations, common epididymal head ectopic, epididymal atresia, absence or undeveloped vas deferens.
  2. Infections, gonococcal, tubercle bacillus and some other bacterial infections can cause obstruction of the epididymis and vas deferens.
  3. Obstruction caused by epididymal cyst pressing epididymal canal.
  4. The injury causes obstruction of the ductus deferens.

What Are The Symptoms Of Azoospermia

Except infertility, there are no clinical symptoms and signs.

After the semen was centrifuged, the sediment was taken for microscopic examination. The sperm was not found for three times, and the patient could be diagnosed with azoospermia, which requires further clarification of the etiology.

During physical examination, attention should be paid to the development of secondary sexual characteristics and external genitalia. If the volume of testis is less than 10ml and the texture is unusually soft, it often indicates poor testicular function. In palpation, attention should be paid to the presence of malformations and nodules in epididymis and vas deferens.


How To Check For Azoospermia

Endocrine examination, serum FSH (follicle stimulating hormone), LH (luteinizing hormone), PRL (prolactin), T (testosterone), DHT (dihydrotestosterone) can help to distinguish between primary and secondary testicular failure.Endocrine examination, serum FSH (follicle stimulating hormone), LH (luteinizing hormone), PRL (prolactin), T (testosterone), DHT (dihydrotestosterone) can help to distinguish between primary and secondary testicular failure.

Testicular B ultrasound can find gross testicular lesions, and testicular biopsy can provide a more reliable basis for diagnosis and treatment.


How To Prevent Azoospermia

The following foods are added in daily life: such as eel, loach, squid, hairtail, sea cucumber, cuttlefish and snail. These foods are essential for spermatogenesis because of their high content of lysine. In addition, zinc deficiency in the body can also reduce sexual desire, reduce sperm. In case of these conditions, we should eat more food with high zinc content. For every 100 grams of food, the zinc content is as follows: oyster 100 mg, chicken 3 mg, egg 3 mg, chicken liver 2.4 mg, peanut 2.9 mg and pork 2.9 mg. When eating these foods, be careful not to drink too much, so as not to affect the absorption of zinc. If it is a severe zinc deficiency, it is best to daily oral zinc acetate 50 mg, regular determination of zinc content in the body.

Low sperm quality is one of the leading causes of male infertility, but the condition is either permanent or temporary. The editor-in-chief of the US magazine Reproductive Health said there were many causes for the temporary low sperm quality, including sexually transmitted diseases, alcohol abuse, smoking, overwork, high temperature, tight underwear, insomnia, work and emotional stress. Patients can completely improve sperm quality through a healthy lifestyle.

Nutritionists point out that many plants and healthy foods can help increase the number and quality of sperm. The fresh dark green juice extracted from the pumpkin leaves is diluted with the same amount of fresh milk, and one cup per day can have a strong tonic effect, help men to increase sexual desire, improve sperm quality and restore reproductive ability.


How To Treat Azoospermia

Treatment of true azoospermia caused by spermatogenesis disorder

This type of disease has poor treatment effect, especially no testis disease or severe testicular lesions. Early surgical treatment of bilateral cryptorchidism can still preserve fertility, but surgery has not been performed for patients older than 5 years old, leading to poor prognosis. For patients with low spermatogenic function and FSH value within the normal range, clomiphene can be taken at 50mg daily for three months. If effective, the drug is continued until the sperm count returns to 20–60 million /ml. Other drugs such as tamoxifen, HCG, and HMG also worked.

Treatment of obstructive azoospermia

For obstruction caused by inflammation and edema of the ductus deferens, antibiotics and glucocorticoids can be used. Cysts may be surgically removed if caused by it. If obstruction caused by congenital malformation or severe dysplasia cannot be resolved, artificial insemination with donor semen (AID) can be considered for remedy.


How To Identify Azoospermia

Differentiation from oligospermia and dead sperm

Oligospermia is a disease in which the number of sperm in semen is lower than that of normal fertile men. According to the International Health Organization, the sperm of men should not be less than 20 million per milliliter, and if it is less than 20 million, it will be classified as oligospermia.

The survival rate of sperm in semen is reduced, and it is found that more than 40% of dead sperm in semen examination are classified as dead sperm disease. However, due to improper inspection methods or failure to collect semen according to normal methods, more dead sperm caused by humans is a false dead sperm disease and must be identified.


What Are The Complications Of Azoospermia

This disease easily leads to infertility.

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