What Is The Carbamate Pesticide Poisoning
Carbamates are used as pesticides, herbicides and fungicides. These insecticides are divided into five categories: ① Naphthyl carbamates. ② Phenylcarbamates. ③ Oxime carbamate. ④ Heterocyclic methyl carbamates. ⑤ Heterocyclic dimethyl carbamates. Except for a few varieties with high toxicity, most of them are of medium and low toxicity.
What's The Cause Of Carbamate Pesticide Poisoning
Carbamate pesticides can invade the body through respiratory tract and digestive tract, and can also be slowly absorbed through skin mucosa, mainly distributed in liver, kidney, fat and muscle tissues. Metabolism is rapid in the body. Metabolites such as hydrolysis, oxidation and combination are excreted with urine, and 70%-80% of the intake can be excreted in 24 hours.
The toxic mechanism of carbamate pesticides is similar to that of organophosphorus pesticides, which mainly inhibits the activity of cholinesterase, and makes the hydroxyl group of serine in the active center of enzyme carbamylated, thus losing the hydrolysis ability of enzyme to acetylcholine. Carbamate pesticides can directly form loose complexes with cholinesterase without metabolic activation. Because the combination of carbamate pesticides and cholinesterase is reversible, and it is hydrolyzed quickly in the body, the cholinesterase activity is easy to recover, so its toxic effect is lighter than that of organophosphorus pesticide poisoning.
What Symptom Does Carbamate Pesticide Poisoning Have
It is similar to mild organophosphorus pesticide poisoning, but generally mild, with muscarinic symptoms as obvious symptoms, such as dizziness, headache, fatigue, nausea, vomiting, salivation, hyperhidrosis and miosis, and blood cholinesterase activity is slightly inhibited, so it is generally mild, with shorter course of disease and faster recovery. Pulmonary edema, cerebral edema, coma and respiratory depression can occur when a large number of oral poisoning is serious. Delayed peripheral neuropathy did not occur after poisoning.
How To Check For Carbamate Pesticide Poisoning
The whole blood cholinesterase activity decreased slightly and moderately within 12 hours after poisoning. Corresponding poisons can be detected in vomit or cleaning solution.
How To Prevent Carbamate Pesticide Poisoning
The prognosis is good, and the general occupational poisoning patients rarely die. After active rescue, most of them fully recover and can still work in their original jobs without sequelae.
If there are sequelae after poisoning, please refer to the relevant parts of organophosphorus pesticide poisoning for evaluation. Poisoning death, please according to the standard of identification and compensation of industrial accident death.
How To Treat Carbamate Pesticide Poisoning
Same as mild organophosphorus pesticide poisoning. Atropine is the first choice for the treatment of carbamate pesticide poisoning, which has excellent curative effect and can quickly control the symptoms and signs caused by inhibition of cholinesterase. It is advisable to use conventional dosage of 0.5-1mg orally or intramuscularly, without excessive dosage. Because carbamate pesticides metabolize rapidly in vivo, cholinesterase activity recovers quickly, and oxime cholinesterase reinnervation agents are not needed. For some carbamate pesticides, such as acute carbaryl poisoning, the use of oxime cholinesterase energizer will enhance toxicity and inhibit cholinesterase activity, which will affect the therapeutic effect of atropine. Therefore, oxime cholinesterase energizer is generally not used for carbamate pesticide poisoning. In case of mixed poisoning of carbamate pesticides and organophosphorus pesticides, atropine can be used first, and cholinesterase reinnervation agent can be used as appropriate after poisoning for a period of time.
How To Identify Carbamate Pesticide Poisoning
Mild Poisoning: dizziness, headache, fatigue, blurred vision, numbness, hyperhidrosis, pallor, nausea, vomiting, mydriasis, muscle tremor, etc. may occur, and generally return to normal within 24 hours after disengagement, and the whole blood cholinesterase activity is often below 70%.
Severe Poisoning: In addition to the aggravation of the above symptoms, one of the following cases can be diagnosed as severe poisoning: ① Pulmonary edema. ② Coma cerebral edema, whole blood cholinesterase is generally below 30%.