Body Parts: Head Limbs
Medical Subjects: Skin

What Is Chilblain

What is chilblain

Chilblain is common in winter and is a localized inflammatory lesion of the skin due to cold and dampness. It is usually accompanied by marked itching, which is more pronounced in warm environments.

The course of the disease is slow, lasting for several months, and often does not heal until the next spring, with a relapse likely next winter. The person that had chilblain, if relapse next year, still be in very likely same place.

Is chilblain common?

Common, most common in children, young women or those with poor peripheral blood circulation.


What Is The Cause Of Chilblain

What reason is chilblain caused?

Chilblain does not need the low temperature of freezer freezer layer that ability causes, in fact, the cold below 0℃, cause often is serious acute frostbite and not chilblain.

In China, most chilblains are caused by long-term exposure to cold environments above 0℃ and below 10℃. Even if not directly touched, can cause. And humidity environment, than dry and cold environment is more likely to let a person long chilblain. In addition, cold and heat sharp change is also a common cause of chilblain.

How is chilblain formed?

Chilblain is an abnormal reaction to cold, a local congestion. Because of the long time of cold make small artery contraction, after a long time of vascular paralysis and expansion, venous congestion, local poor blood circulation, capillary permeability enhancement, plasma exudation to run to the tissue gap, and then come on.

If the frozen time is longer, local tissue will appear hypoxia, cell damage will be more serious.

Chilblain is good hair in which crowd?

  • Chilblain is the most common in children, young women or poor peripheral blood circulation, and malnutrition, anemia and lack of exercise, peripheral circulation is usually not very good, so these people are easy to repeatedly long chilblain.

  • Some hand and foot hyperhidrosis patient because limb end local is wet, also can grow chilblain more easily.

  • Wearing shoes or socks that are too tight may also aggravate poor local blood circulation and form chilblains.

Can chilblain infect?

Chilblains are caused entirely by the cold and not by bacteria, viruses or any other pathogenic microorganisms, so they are unlikely to spread.

Sometimes we will see that all the families living together grow chilblains. This is not because of infection, but more because of inheritance and sharing of the same living environment or similar living habits. For example, their home is relatively cold, and for example, all the families do not love sports.

Can chilblain pass on?

A few people with chilblain blood contains a cold precipitation, after warm and dissolved protein, this is called "cold globulin", this kind of constitution is have a certain chance to genetic.

Some basic diseases that cause local blood circulation to be bad, such as chronic anemia and sweaty hands and feet, have a hereditary tendency in themselves. If children and parents also suffer from chronic anemia, then their hands and feet are equally poor in circulation, so chilblains are equally easy to get.

But not all chilblains are inherited, because chilblains themselves do not affect genes.


What Symptom Does Chilblain Have

Chilblain grows in what part commonly?

Chilblain often occurs at the circulatory terminals, such as fingers, the back of hand, face, dorsum pedis, toes, foot margin, heel and pinna. It is often symmetrically distributed and may also occur unilaterally.

The local chilblain indicates that the blood circulation in this part is not very good, but the weakness of the individual.

What does chilblain grow like?

Chilblain is often a local dark purplish red, swollen edematous erythema, and the boundary of the normal skin is not very clear, the edge is red, the surface swollen taut shiny, not hard to touch.

Pressing it can see that it will fade, just like squeezing the subcutaneous blood out. After letting go, it will gradually change back to its original red and swollen appearance.

Can chilblain cause blister?

Common chilblains are usually only red and swollen with broken skin, and only a few serious chilblains may present with blisters.

More often, people with blisters, hemorrhagic erythema, and iris-like erythema with a central blister actually develop cold erythema multiforme.

Cold erythema multiforme is usually caused by the cold, rash number and pattern are more than chilblain, but better than chilblain, usually after two or three weeks erythema multiforme and blisters have disappeared, but chilblain is still there, until the arrival of spring.

Chilblain is a skin disease caused by physical damage, while erythema multiforme cold is more like an immunoreactive disease.

Chilblain is the body the expression of systemic disease?

Chilblain itself does not mean that other systems or organs in the body have organic lesions.

A small number of people think they have chilblain when their hind limbs turn from white to red when facing cold, accompanied by itching or numbness. However, they find that they still have some connective tissue diseases after a few years, such as scleroderma and systemic lupus erythematosus, which may be mistaken as chilblain becoming a systemic disease.

In fact, this kind of people show after the cold of the limb artery spasm is acute, a few hours or a few days after didn't feel, and chilblain this course often for months of disease is different. This quick-come, quick-go, recurrent vasospasm is called Reynold's reaction. It can be induced not only by cold but also by stress.

Renault's reaction may be a precursor to certain systemic disorders, but simple chilblains are not usually.


How To Check Whether Suffering From Chilblain

What is the difference between chilblain and frostbite?

Chilblain is caused by low temperature above 0℃, and frostbite includes all low temperature damage caused by any low temperature above 0℃ and below 0℃.

Different from chilblain which is only confined to the superficial layer of the skin, severe frostbite, such as liquid nitrogen frostbite, may reach as deep as the subcutaneous tissues, muscles, and even bones are frostbite, which may cause irreversible damage and still leave disability and dysfunction after healing.

Meets the cold wind to rise the wind regiment, this is chilblain one kind?

Some people may have flaky and convex rash when facing cold wind, i.e., wheal. With severe pruritus, the rash frequently occurs on the exposed skin such as face and hand. The rash can automatically resolve but reoccurs in batches. This is not chilblain, but cold urticaria.

Urticaria pruritus is much more severe than chilblain, but is not accompanied by local vasospasm or congestion, but only vascular local edema.

For most patients with cold urticaria, when the disease occurs, a "ten" is slightly scratched on the skin without rash. After three minutes, the same type of bulge and pruritus can be seen for identification.

Treatment of this type of disease should be urticaria, and chilblain is different.

What diseases should chilblain be distinguished from in life?

According to the onset in cold season, the characteristic distribution of skin lesions and the rash characteristics, the diagnosis is not difficult and no other auxiliary examinations are required. However, it needs to be distinguished from cold panniculitis, systemic lupus erythematosus, erythema multiforme, Sjogren's syndrome, cryoglobulinemia, cyanosis of extremities and other diseases.


How To Prevent Chilblain

How does chilblain avoid?

The right thing to do is to get back to the warm environment as soon as possible, such as indoors. Then you can massage the coldest limbs, such as hand exposed person can clap your hands, repeatedly rub fingers and palms, help local blood circulation, after waiting for limb numbness feeling disappeared, can use warm water towel to apply briefly.

Have discovered grew a little chilblain, what method still has to stop its development now?

The formed chilblain cannot be cured for a while, but we can focus on nursing care to avoid causing more discomfort due to its excessive expansion.

If chilblain weather-shack breaks, we can need to take antibiotic to prevent infection, if you do not want to fall to this one step, can be in every night after chilblain place daub olive oil and other vegetable oil is massaged repeatedly to promote local circulation, oil agent can keep wet, avoid weather-shack breaks, and massage can alleviate local vasospasm, and improve circulation.

Even if chilblain cannot be eliminated, swelling and pain and itching can be greatly relieved, and bursting can be prevented.

How to avoid the formation of chilblain in cold environment.

It is necessary to keep warm!

If all the conditions, should try to keep the room temperature is not less than 10℃, if go out, should pay attention to the weak parts of the warm. Abandon tight pants and socks, which make your lower limbs tight and poor circulation, and end up with red and scaly toes for several months for a moment of beautiful thread. It's not worth it.

For sweaty hands and feet, gloves and shoes and socks should be replaced immediately once they are found soaked with sweat.

Can chilblain prevent through taking cold bath?

Taking a cold bath can improve individual adaptability to the cold and indeed achieve the purpose of preventing chilblain.

In our army, it is still advocated that soldiers should take cold baths for a long time to avoid being weakened by chilblains when fighting in cold environments.

Taking a cold bath for a long time can make the end of the circulation receive cold stimulation for many times and briefly, so that the elasticity of the peripheral blood vessels is enhanced and it is not easy to be paralyzed by the cold in the cold season and cause congestion.

However, taking a cold bath cannot be achieved overnight. Instead, one should warm up gradually before taking a shower. One should start taking cold water when the weather is still warm and persist in taking it until the winter comes, instead of changing it on a whim when the weather is freezing.

Can chilblain prevent through running?

Moderate physical exercise can promote the whole body blood circulation, is the ultimate means to prevent frostbite. Aerobic exercise other than running can do the same.

We recommend that the general population exercise at least five times a week for about an hour each time, with a heart rate of 120 beats per minute during exercise.

However, pregnant women, the elderly physically weak and the mentally disabled do not have to force themselves to carry out such intense exercise, which can be replaced by brisk walking or walking.

Pregnant woman unfavorable and violent motion, how prevent chilblain?

Pregnant women are not the only ones who are completely immobile.

In fact, as long as pay attention to keep warm during pregnancy, take a walk such moderate outdoor sports, can promote the blood circulation of pregnant women, reduce pregnancy reaction caused by discomfort, depression and irritability symptoms, enhance abdominal muscle strength and self immunity, is conducive to the smooth delivery, but also can control the excessive growth of pregnant women during pregnancy body weight, in the prevention and management of gestational diabetes also plays an important role.

If taking a walk still cannot make limb cycle end feels warm, can be in every night the place such as limb, auricle formerly grew chilblain is daub olive oil to wait for vegetable oil to come repeatedly massage to promote local cycle, also can rise the effect that prevents chilblain.

For the part that had chilblain before, how does winter prevent reoccurrence?

Chilblain often recurs, and often still occurs in areas that have had chilblain before. We should pay special attention to the warm and preventive massage on the parts that have suffered from chilblain.

If grow in auricle last year, should notice to go out this year when wearing the cap that covers ear or ear cover, if grow in the hand last year, should notice to wear glove especially this year, undertake washing the dishes, when washing a face to wait for a behavior also should use warm water as far as possible.

If last year grew on the foot, should review this year whether shoe socks is too tight adverse to blood circulation, and change wear tightness appropriate thick cotton socks and thick shoes.


How To Treat Chilblain

Chilblain should see what department?


How is chilblain treated?

The treatment of chilblain includes heat preservation, and topical application of capsaicin ointment and hirsutum ointment to promote blood circulation and eliminate blood stasis.

Does chilblain need to take antiphlogistic drug?

As the saying goes, anti-inflammatory drugs, in fact, mainly refers to antibiotics, is to kill or inhibit bacteria, viruses, chlamydia, mycoplasma and so on a series of pathogenic microorganisms of drugs.

Chilblain is a local inflammatory lesion of the skin, but it is caused by the cold and not by pathogenic microorganisms, so there is no need to take antibiotics.

Only chilblain rout, in order to prevent and treat infection, may need some antibiotics for external or internal use.

Chilblain can be treated through what physical method?

TDP radiation treatment to alleviate the discomfort of chilblain has a significant effect.

TDP is short for "Specific Electromagnetic Spectrum" in Chinese Phonetic Alphabet. Its wavelength is located in the near-infrared spectrum. After irradiating the human body, the absorption part of TDP is mainly in the skin and subcutaneous tissue. By exerting the warm effect, TDP can improve blood circulation of local tissues and has the effects of anti-inflammation, detumescence, reducing exudation, improving tissue nutrition, and promoting the growth of granulation tissue and epithelium, thereby achieving the purpose of treating chilblain.

When can chilblain just be good?

Chilblains will not completely heal until the ambient temperature rises.

Therefore, the warming of the general environment is the only opportunity for the cure of chilblain.


What Should Chilblain Patient Notice In Life

Did not show a leg directly, just did not wear long Johns, can you get chilblain?

Chilblain does not necessarily have to be caused by direct contact with the cold, and wearing less may also lead to chilblain.

There is a special type of chilblain called "rider panniculitis", which mostly occurs to horse riders in foreign countries. It is precisely because people wear tight outer pants instead of long Johns in the cold environment that they suffer from this kind of chilblain. After the cold, the outer sides of both thighs show purplish red plaques with obvious pruritus, which quickly disappears after returning to the warm environment.

Can the rapid warming of limbs after cold invasion avoid the formation of chilblain?

After cold absolutely can't immediately fire or bubble hot water!

The sudden change of cold and heat is one of the causes of chilblain. When we are in a cold environment for a long time, the peripheral blood vessels are contracting, and sudden contact with overheated hot water or fire will make the capillaries suddenly relax and expand, causing local blood circulation to stagnate immediately and chilblain will soon form.

Can you scratch or rub chilblains?

Chilblain is often accompanied by pruritus, especially at night in the warm bed, pruritus more obvious, it is difficult to do without scratching.

But chilblain itself local edema, skin tension is already high, scratch easily make chilblain rout, and even form ulcers. Once the skin breaks, we have to consider the risk of infection and have to use antibiotics, which increases the cost of treatment.

Therefore, we can never use sharp nails to scratch chilblain, but we can't help it. We rub it with vegetable oil and massage it repeatedly, which can improve the circulation and relieve the hatred slightly.

Not only can't scratch broken chilblain, even cold erythema multiforme caused by blisters, we also can only use disinfection needle to break, release the blister liquid, but can't get rid of the blister skin, in case the exposed base wound is bigger, increase the risk of infection.

Can pregnant women use chilblain cream?

We do not recommend chilblain cream for pregnant women.

What method does pregnant woman and lactation woman have to be able to alleviate the discomfort that chilblain brings?

The wavelength of TDP is very close to that of sunlight and there is no radiation, so even pregnant and lactating women can receive TDP exposure.

If it is not convenient to obtain such treatment, nicotinic acid for improving microcirculation can be orally administered.

Nicotinic acid, also known as vitamin PP, is a water-soluble B vitamins, can be obtained from natural food, can also be artificial synthesis, in the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) listed in the pregnancy safety classification for class A drugs, that is, there is sufficient evidence that in the early pregnancy women's full and strict control study did not see damage to the fetus (in the next six months also saw no evidence of harm).

It can dilate blood vessels in the lesion area and improve circulation. However, attention should be paid to the fact that high dose of nicotinic acid can reduce blood lipids, which may indirectly hinder the fetus from obtaining enough heat. Therefore, the appropriate dose should be selected under the guidance of a physician, and a flat tablet rather than a sustained-release tablet should be selected as far as possible.

In addition, pregnant women and lactating women can apply ointment externally to improve local discomfort.

What precautions does chilblain easy suffer from crowd life have?

We already know, chilblain and wet cold environment, local blood circulation is bad, so if the home shade, we should pay attention to create dehumidification, warm conditions.

If there is a primary disease that affects circulation, we should actively treat the cause.

In addition to moderate exercise on weekdays, pay attention to keep warm, local massage, can also be preventive in the winter before taking nicotinic acid.

Related Articles