Enterovirus Infection (Pediatric Enteroviral Infections)

Enterovirus Infection

What Is The Enterovirus Infection?

Enterovirus is common in the environment. When the body is infected with one or more enteroviruses, a series of clinical manifestations can be caused. The epidemic areas of enterovirus infection are extremely extensive, and most of them occur in summer and autumn.

Enteroviruses include poliovirus, Coxsackie virus, enterocytopathic human orphan virus (echovirus, ECHO) and novel enterovirus, with a total of 71 serotypes. The virus has a wide distribution of infection and complex and diverse clinical manifestations.


What Is The Cause Of Enterovirus Infection?

What causes enterovirus infection?

HEV can survive in the external environment for a long time. When the feces carrying HEV pollute the surface water, groundwater, soil and domestic waste, the marine products, crops, water and other foods eaten by human beings are likely to be polluted. Once the water or food contaminated by HEV is improperly treated, it will enter the body through the oral cavity, respiratory tract, and mucosa of the human body, causing the corresponding diseases.

What are the common populations with enterovirus infection?

Areas with warm, humid, poor health conditions and high population density have a high population incidence, which can be suffered by adults and children, especially by children.


What Are The Symptoms Of Enterovirus Infection?

The clinical manifestations of enterovirus infection vary widely and can mainly cause the following:

  1. Respiratory tract infection: upper respiratory tract infection caused by echovirus and coxsackievirus is the most common and can also cause lower respiratory tract infection such as infantile pneumonia.
  2. Herpetic angina: it is mostly seen in summer and autumn and has extremely strong infectivity, manifested as fever, sore throat, pharyngeal congestion, herpes scattered in the gray hills in the pharynx, and flush around it. The yellow ulcer is formed after herpes ulceration, which is more common in the tonsils, soft palate and uvula.
  3. Epidemic rash disease: upper respiratory tract symptoms such as fever and sore throat are common before the rash occurs. The rash appears in fever or pyrexia, showing pleomorphism. The rash with different forms can exist at the same time or appear in batches, and may be accompanied by enlarged lymph nodes.
  4. Hand-foot-and-mouth disease: it mainly occurs in children under 5 years old, and is highly infectious, capable of outbreak or sporadic. Early manifestations include low grade fever, anorexia, and oral pain. The oral mucosa shows herpes zoster, which then breaks and ulcerates.
  5. Meningitis, encephalitis and paralytic diseases: they are mostly found in children, with the main clinical manifestations of fever, headache, meningeal irritation, etc. Most of them are mild. The meningeal irritation is one of the criteria for judging the severity of hand-foot-mouth disease.


How To Diagnose Enterovirus Infection?

Conventional diagnosis is mainly based on medical history and clinical manifestations, and the main means for confirming enterovirus infection are pathogen and antibody tests, which mainly detect the antibody titer of serum in the acute phase and the recovery phase. A definite diagnosis can be made if the antibody titer rises more than four times.


How Should Enterovirus Infection Be Prevented?

Daily life should pay attention to environmental health and personal health, contact with patients of infants and young children can be injected with gamma globulin to prevent infection, can also be inoculated with live attenuated poliomyelitis vaccine, by interfering with the intestine and control the prevalence of other enterovirus infection.


How To Treat Enterovirus Infection?

At present, there is no specific treatment plan, mainly for antiviral and symptomatic support treatment:

Antiviral interferon and other antiviral drugs can be used, but the therapeutic effect is not exact, the early application of large doses of gamma globulin.

At the same time, because most of the enterovirus infections are infectious diseases, which are mainly transmitted through the fecal port, it needs to be isolated for a period of time. If there is concurrent respiratory tract infection or skin infection, the symptomatic treatment is carried out according to the symptoms.

What is the prognosis of enterovirus infection?

After symptomatic treatment, the vast majority of patients have a good prognosis. If mortality increases in severe patients with combined central nervous system, cardiac, and pulmonary complications, children with meningoencephalitis may develop central nervous system sequelae.

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