What Is Hyperspasmia And Convulsion?
Hyperspasmia and convulsion refer to the sudden occurrence of limb and/or whole body muscle involuntary contraction causing short-term severe shaking of the limb and/or whole body, which can be manifested as local muscle, single limb or unilateral limb tic, as well as limb and whole body tic. Most of them are sudden illness and suddenly interrupted, and most of them last for a short time, and a few with a long duration can even endanger life.
There is no clear conceptual distinction between convulsion and convulsion, and habitual usage in different medical terms is different, for example, convulsion induced by infantile hyperpyrexia is named as febrile convulsion.
What Is The Cause Of Hyperspasmia And Convulsions?
Most hyperspasmia and convulsions are manifestations of epilepsy, with the mechanism of abnormal discharge of brain neurons. However, normal people may occasionally experience hyperspasmia or convulsions due to cold, fever, electrolyte disorder, excessive use of drugs, long-term alcohol withdrawal, and insufficient sleep, i.e., mental and psychological pressure.
The possible causes of convulsions and convulsions vary among patients at different ages:
- Neonatal period: It mostly comes from congenital development deformity and perinatal brain injury.
- Infancy: Genetic factors, vitamin deficiency, febrile convulsions.
- Childhood and adolescence: Metabolic factors such as epilepsy syndrome/idiopathic epilepsy due to genetic factors, brain injury for various reasons, and systemic peroxide disease.
- Adulthood: The main causes can be divided into secondary to brain disease and secondary to systemic disease.
- Infection: such as encephalitis, meningitis, brain abscess, brain tuberculoma, poliomyelitis, etc.
- Trauma: such as birth injury, craniocerebral trauma, etc.
- Tumors: including primary tumors, brain metastases.
- Vascular diseases: such as vascular malformations, cerebral hemorrhage, subarachnoid hemorrhage, hypertensive encephalopathy, cerebral embolism, cerebral thrombosis and cerebral hypoxia.
- Parasitic diseases: such as cerebral malaria, cerebral schistosomiasis, cerebral echinococcosis, and cerebral cysticercosis.
- Others: Congenital brain development disorder, brain degeneration of undetermined cause, such as nodular sclerosis, disseminated sclerosis, and nuclear jaundice.
- Metabolic disorders: such as hypoglycemia, low calcium and magnesium levels, acute intermittent hematoporphyrin disease, and vitamin B deficiency of eclampsia. Hypocalcemia may be manifested as typical tetany.
- Infection: such as acute gastroenteritis, toxic bacillary dysentery, streptococcal septicemia, otitis media, pertussis rabies, tetanus, etc. Febrile convulsion in children is mainly caused by acute infection.
- Endogenous: such as uremia, hepatic encephalopathy, etc.
- Exogenous: such as alcohol, benzene, lead, arsenic, mercury, quindox, atropine, camphor, ginkgo, organophosphate poisoning.
- Cardiovascular diseases: hypertensive encephalopathy or AdamsStokes syndrome, etc.
- Rheumatism: such as systemic lupus erythematosus, cerebrovascular inflammation, etc.
- Others: such as sudden withdrawal of hypnotics and antiepileptic drugs, can also be seen in heat stroke, drowning suffocation, electric shock, etc.
What Are The Symptoms Of Hyperspasmia And Convulsions?
Are there any signs of hyperspasmia and convulsions before occurring?
Most hyperspasmia and convulsions have no warning signs. In some patients, vague or indescribable warning signs may appear immediately before the attack, such as thoracoabdominal inflation, local slight twitch, nameless fear or dream feeling, and the duration is very short.
Before the occurrence of systemic hyperspasmia and convulsion, there may be a tonic period in which the skeletal muscle of the whole body undergoes tonic contraction, including the muscles of the throat, so the patient often yells and falls down, causing the whole body muscle stiffness, followed by the whole body muscle twitch. Some patients may also induce vomiting due to abdominal muscle tension.
What sequela can hyperspasmia and convulsion have?
Most patients suffer from hyperspasmia and convulsion, often accompanied by headache, systemic soreness and fatigue, etc. They have no memory of the attack process. Some patients may also present with transient hemiplegia and long-term lethargy due to different causes.
During the onset of symptoms, patients may suffer from trauma, even intracranial hemorrhage and fracture due to sudden fall. In severe cases, severe muscle contraction during the onset may also result in joint dislocation, spine or femur fracture, etc.
Tongue bite may occur during the attack, and aspiration pneumonia may occur as a result of aspiration of vomit by mistake.
Do hyperspasmia and convulsions affect intelligence and height?
Long-term repeated hyperspasmia and convulsions can affect intelligence, and repeated seizures in children may affect growth and development.
How To Diagnose Hyperspasmia And Convulsions?
When should patients with hyperspasmia and convulsions go to the hospital?
Hyperspasmia and convulsions should be treated immediately with the following symptoms and conditions:
- Unexplained first attack.
- In patients with a previous history of epilepsy, the seizure lasted for more than 3 to 5 minutes, or the state of consciousness remained unrecovered after the seizure.
- Seizures with other serious complications.
Note: Even in patients who have had repeated seizures in the past and are clearly diagnosed with epilepsy, medical treatment should be sought promptly if the frequency of seizures increases and the pattern of seizures aggravates.
Do hyperspasmia and convulsions need CT and MRI?
For patients with the first episode, unknown cause or obvious aggravation of the episode before, cranial CT/MRI examination should be perfected to evaluate the intracranial condition.
Do hyperspasmia and convulsions require lumbar puncture?
For patients who suspect hyperspasmia and convulsion caused by organic diseases such as intracranial infection, subarachnoid hemorrhage, encephalitis, abnormal intracranial pressure, lumbar puncture needs to be perfected to assist in the diagnosis.
What else to check for hyperspasmia and convulsions?
For patients with hyperspasmia and convulsion of unknown cause, it is necessary to first improve the vital sign monitoring, routine blood test, liver and kidney function, heart function, blood glucose, infection indicators, and other indicators to assess the hyperspasmia and convulsion caused by systemic diseases such as unstable vital signs, metabolic abnormalities and infectious diseases.
Second, we should improve brain imaging (CT/MRI/functional MRI, etc.) to assess the presence of intracranial organic diseases. For patients suspected of epilepsy, we should also improve electroencephalogram/long-term electroencephalogram monitoring to assess the presence of abnormal electroencephalogram activities.
A few people who suspect that hereditary factors cause hyperspasmia and convulsions may also need genetic tests.
How To Prevent Hyperspasmia And Convulsions?
Can hyperspasmia or convulsions be prevented by supplementing calcium?
Although calcium deficiency leads to convulsions, it is more common in neonates and small infants and is associated with vitamin D deficiency, which requires supplementation to promote calcium absorption. In clinic, most hyperspasmia or convulsions are not related to calcium deficiency, especially in adult patients. Therefore, supplementing calcium cannot well prevent hyperspasmia or convulsion.
Can hyperspasmia or convulsions be prevented by medication?
For hyperspasmia or convulsion caused by epilepsy, standardized administration of antiepileptic drugs is helpful to prevent hyperspasmia or convulsion. It is forbidden to stop taking, take less or miss taking without authorization, and regular follow-up visit is required to adjust the scheme.
How To Relieve Or Treat Hyperspasmia And Convulsions?
How to deal with when hyperspasmia or convulsion happens?
When hyperspasmia or convulsions occur, the most important thing we need to do is to protect our patients from tongue bites, aspiration of vomit, and injuries due to limb twitching, so:
- First remove any nearby obstacles, especially those with sharp objects.
- Secondly, the patient should lie on his/her back with his/her head tilted to one side and the mouth angle slightly lower. If vomit exists, it can naturally flow out to reduce the risk of aspiration.
- Third, if the situation allows, the use of soft cloth or towel plug mouth, reduce the risk of tongue bite, avoid by all means by hand instead.
For patients with epilepsy, convulsions usually last for a short time, about 1–2 minutes. We should pay attention to protect patients from other injuries and wait for the attack to pass. If the convulsion lasts for a long time, especially more than 5 minutes, the patient should be sent to hospital for treatment immediately.
What to do when foaming at the mouth?
Patients need to lie down or lie on the side, head tilted to one side, the corners of the mouth slightly lower, if there is vomit to make it can naturally flow out, reduce the risk of aspiration.
How to relieve the muscle soreness after hyperspasmia or convulsion?
Because hyperspasmia or convulsions cause severe and repeated contraction of skeletal muscle, which is similar to that after severe sports, there will be muscle soreness after the attack, and it can be gradually relieved through rest, more water and proper kneading.
In addition, after convulsions or convulsions, if you feel weak, lethargy and fatigue is normal, just rest and drink more water.