What Is Mycoplasma Pneumonia?
Mycoplasma pneumoniae is an organism intermediate between bacteria and viruses and is the smallest organism that can survive independently in nature. Also belongs to a kind of bacteria in a broad sense.
Mycoplasma is ubiquitous and mainly infects the respiratory system of the human body, and can be infected in adults and children. As you get older, the proportion of M. pneumoniae causing illness increases, 2% in < 2 years old, 5% in 2 to 4 years old, 16% in 5 to 9 years old, and 23% in 10 to 17 years old. In college students and army recruits, the proportion can be as high as 50%. Infection to the lung causes mycoplasma pneumoniae pneumonia, in addition can also infect other parts of the respiratory tract, cause tracheitis, bronchitis, pharyngitis, etc.
Mycoplasma pneumonia can cause cough, expectoration and fever. It can be cured with antibacterial drugs.
What Is The Cause Of Mycoplasma Pneumonia?
Who is mycoplasma pneumonia common in?
Infants and young children are immature due to immune mechanisms, so pneumonia rarely occurs even with evidence of infection. Therefore, mycoplasma pneumoniae pneumonia mostly occurs in children and adults over the age of 5.
Can mycoplasma pneumonia infect?
Mycoplasma pneumoniae, like other respiratory viruses and bacteria, is also contagious, mainly through infectious respiratory droplets spread, but the infectious disease is not as strong, generally pay attention to wear masks, cough or sneezing when appropriate alone, wash your hands frequently, or can effectively prevent the spread.
What Is The Symptoms Of Mycoplasma Pneumonia?
Mycoplasma pneumoniae infection may aggravate the symptoms of asthma and may cause wheezing in children without asthma. So mycoplasma pneumoniae pneumonia can also appear fever, cough, wheeze, shortness of breath and other symptoms, but these are not specific symptoms of mycoplasma pneumonia.
The performance of the relatively typical mycoplasma pneumoniae pneumonia has the characteristics of severe symptoms, mild signs, obvious pulmonary signs, etc., that is, the cough symptoms are severe, but the lung auscultation is not serious, the X-ray film is very obvious patches shadow even large pneumonia.
Extrapulmonary abnormalities are also an important part of mycoplasma disease and can aid in the diagnosis. Manifestations include hemolysis (anemia), rash, joint swelling/pain, and symptoms of gastrointestinal digestive system (such as nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, etc.), central nervous system (poor spirit, limb fatigue, limb instability, etc.) and cardiac circulatory system (such as palpitation, chest tightness).
How To Check Mycoplasma Pneumonia?
What tests do you need to do for mycoplasma pneumonia?
Through clinical manifestation, physical examination, and routine examinations (including routine blood test, C-reactive protein, and chest radiography), the preliminary diagnosis of Mycoplasma pneumoniae pneumonia can be made.
If you want to determine whether the pathogen causing pneumonia is mycoplasma pneumoniae, you also need to do pathogen examination, the most commonly used is the condensation set test. In addition, you can also do serum specific antibody detection, respiratory secretions (sputum, nasal discharge, throat swab) culture, PCR technology to detect specific nucleic acids, etc.
The following indicators can be used as a reference for recent or acute infection with M. pneumoniae, but cannot be used to confirm the diagnosis:
- Nasopharyngeal samples were collected and PCR test was positive.
- Nasopharyngeal samples were collected for positive MP antigen test.
- A single MP antibody titer detected by gelatin particle agglutination test (PA) was ≥ 1: 160.
- A single ELISA assay was positive for MP-IgM.
- MP-IgM was positive in a single assay using immunocolloidal gold (GICT).
In addition, infants and young children immune function is not perfect, the ability to produce antibodies is low, may appear false negative or low titer of antibodies, so, negative also cannot rule out mycoplasma pneumoniae infection.
There is currently no laboratory method that can diagnose M. pneumoniae infection quickly and reliably, and it is difficult to differentiate between patients with M. pneumoniae disease, asymptomatic colonization, and recovery, so caution should be exercised in interpreting the report.
In view of these shortcomings, treatment can be considered due to high clinical suspicion, so as not to delay the disease.
MP infection is usually diagnosed by looking back at the past to establish a diagnosis, for example, clinical improvement after administration of appropriate treatment, or a fourfold or more increase or decrease in MP antibody titers during the recovery and acute phases.
How To Prevent Mycoplasma Pneumonia?
Is there a vaccine to prevent mycoplasma pneumoniae?
There is currently no vaccine against M. pneumoniae. The best way to prevent mycoplasma pneumonia is to wash your hands frequently, and pay attention to wearing masks in the prone season, and open more windows for ventilation, so as to balance nutrition, combine work with rest and enhance your constitution.
- Wash your child's hands often with soap (or hand sanitizer) and running water, which is one of the best ways to prevent the spread of infection.
- Avoid visiting crowded public places during the season of high incidence of diseases.
- If someone at home gets sick with a cold, in addition to washing hands frequently, it is recommended to wear a mask and open doors and windows frequently for air exchange.
- In addition, try to avoid the tobacco environment, which will also make children respiratory tract become vulnerable, children often exposed to tobacco environment, the incidence or severity of infectious diseases will be higher than the average child.
How To Treat Mycoplasma Pneumonia?
In addition to fever, cough and other symptoms for fever, aerosol cough and other treatment, the treatment of mycoplasma pneumoniae is mainly macrolide antibiotics.
Azithromycin was the first choice with the strongest efficacy, lower drug resistance rate and low medication frequency. In addition can also use clarithromycin, erythromycin, etc.
If the infection is not severe, azithromycin may be administered orally in a total amount of 30 mg/kg for 3 or 5 days. Generally, one treatment course is required, and clinically, sometimes two treatment courses are required for severe cases.
Does mycoplasma pneumonia require hospitalization?
Mycoplasma pneumoniae pneumonia requires hospitalization or not, and mild pneumonia can be treated as an outpatient mainly according to the severity of the disease. For severe pneumonia, such as fever does not return, shortness of breath or lung consolidation, it is necessary to hospital.
Will mycoplasma pneumonia relapse after cure?
Mycoplasma pneumonia can be cured after a sufficient course of treatment, but because of the short duration of immunity after infection, it is still possible to repeatedly infected.
What Should Patients With Mycoplasma Pneumonia Pay Attention To In Life?
Can children with mycoplasma pneumonia still go to school?
The child that got mycoplasma pneumonia, can have the symptom such as fever commonly, cough, shortness of breath, wheeze, this kind of circumstance does not suit to go to school, because can infect other person not only, the child recovers more need to rest; If the symptoms are relieved in the later stage and the situation is not so serious, we can still go to school by taking proper precautions, such as wearing masks.
What should you pay attention to in life during mycoplasma pneumonia treatment?
During treatment, attention should be paid to rest and adequate sleep. At the same time should pay attention to balanced nutrition, there is no need to avoid some food because of pneumonia.