Nevus Cavernosus

Nevus Cavernosus
Medical Subjects: Skin

What Is Cavernous Hemangioma

What disease is cavernous hemangioma?

Cavernous hemangioma is a benign vascular tumor that is common in neonates or infants. The etiology is unknown and may be caused by congenital vascular anomalies.

Cavernous hemangioma can occur in all parts of the body, lesions in addition to the skin and subcutaneous tissue, can also occur in the submucosa, muscle, and even bone and internal organs. It was mainly distributed in the head, face and neck, followed by the four limbs and trunk. Clinical manifestations of cavernous hemangioma in different parts are different.

The treatment of cavernous hemangioma includes surgical resection, radioisotope therapy, sclerotherapy, hormone therapy, etc.

Cavernous hemangiomas generally have a good prognosis, but they are often located in the head and face of patients, and their aesthetics may be affected if no active treatment is given.

What type does cavernous hemangioma have?

Cavernous hemangioma can be divided into cerebral cavernous hemangioma, hepatic cavernous hemangioma, facial cavernous hemangioma, cervical cavernous hemangioma, plantar cavernous hemangioma, etc.

Is cavernous hemangioma common?


The incidence of cavernous hemangioma in the human population is about 1%, especially in neonates or infants.

Is cavernous hemangioma tumor? Is it malignant?

It's a tumor, mostly benign.

Cavernous hemangioma is a benign vascular tumor, and only a few cavernous hemangiomas develop into angiosarcoma, a malignant tumor.


What Is The Etiology Of Cavernous Hemangioma

What is the etiology of cavernous hemangioma

The etiology of cavernous hemangioma is unknown and may be caused by congenital vascular anomalies. Meanwhile, radiotherapy, virus infection, trauma, surgery, and vascular reaction after hemorrhage can all induce cavernous hemangioma.

What are the good hair crowd of cavernous hemangioma?

  • Cavernous hemangiomas are common in neonates or infants and there is no gender difference in their onset.

  • Patients with radiation therapy, virus infection, trauma, operation and vascular reaction after hemorrhage are also liable to suffer from cavernous hemangioma.


Patients With Radiation Therapy, Virus Infection, Trauma, Operation And Vascular Reaction After Hemorrhage Are Also Liable To Suffer From Cavernous Hemangioma.

What are the common symptoms of cavernous hemangioma?

Cavernous hemangioma can occur in almost any part of the body. The clinical manifestations of cavernous hemangioma in different parts are different.

  • Cavernous hemangiomas located in the subcutaneous tissue vary in size and may have normal or dark blue skin color. In the case of a larger tumor, the area may be hemispherical or irregularly elevated, and it is soft as a sponge on palpation, and sometimes the intravenous stones in the tumor may be touched. Compression can temporarily reduce the size of the tumor, and the volume of the tumor can be changed with the change of body position or the speed of venous return. When tumor internal vein thrombosis occurs, repeated local pain and tenderness may occur.
  • Cavernous hemangiomas located in deep tissues or retroperitoneum generally have no subjective symptoms. If there is thrombosis or secondary infection, there is pain in the corresponding part.
  • Cavernous hemangioma located in the brain may also present with epilepsy, intracranial hemorrhage, neurological dysfunction, headache and other discomforts.
  • Cavernous hemangioma located in the liver may also present with abdominal distension, liver discomfort, fullness, belching, and other discomforts.
  • Cavernous hemangioma located in the eyelid, lips, tongue, floor of the mouth, pharyngeal wall and other areas, often affect the appearance of patients, and can cause the corresponding visual acuity, swallowing, voice, breathing and other dysfunction.
  • Cavernous hemangioma located in the joint cavity can cause local soreness and abnormal flexion and extension of the joint.

What serious consequences can cavernous hemangioma cause?

The harm of cavernous hemangioma depends on its location and size.

  • Tumors that occur in the face will inevitably affect the beauty of patients and even cause facial deformities in severe cases.
  • Tumors that occur in the neck and throat can cause tumor rupture and hemorrhage due to eating hard objects, and even endanger life in serious cases.
  • Tumors that occur in functional areas, such as eyeball, tongue, finger, toe, penis, clitoris, and joint, can affect the function of these areas.
  • Cavernous hemangiomas can also develop infections, ulcers, bleeding and even malignant transformation, which can be life-threatening in these serious cases.

How To Check Whether Have Cavernous Hemangioma

Which branch should cavernous hemangioma see?

  • Cavernous hemangioma of the body surface can be seen in dermatology and burn plastic surgery.
  • Orbital cavernous hemangioma may be referred to an ophthalmologist;
  • Hepatic cavernous hemangioma may be referred to liver surgery;
  • Brain cavernous hemangiomas can be referred to neurosurgery;
  • Cavernous hemangiomas of the muscles and bones can be referred to the Department of Orthopedics.

What check need to do when cavernous hemangioma is diagnosed? Why are you doing these tests?

  • Detailed physical examination: most patients can be diagnosed with the combination of history and detailed physical examination;
  • Tumor puncture: other types of hemangioma are excluded, and it can also be distinguished from solid tumors on the body surface.
  • X-ray plain film: for cavernous hemangioma of bone, the scope of the tumor body and the surrounding bone changes can be determined, and for general cavernous hemangioma, the intravenous stone or calcification in the tumor body can be determined.
  • B-scan ultrasonography: the location and depth of the tumor as well as its relationship with the surrounding tissues were clarified.
  • MRI: It has high diagnostic value for cerebral cavernous hemangioma;
  • Tumor angiography: to clarify the size and location of the tumor, and the relationship with the surrounding tissues;
  • Selective angiography: to identify the nutrient vessels and reflux vessels of the tumor body;
  • Surgical resection and pathological examination: the final pathological diagnosis was confirmed.

When cavernous hemangioma cannot diagnose, need to do selective arteriography, what precautions?

  • Selective angiography is an invasive examination, and patients may have certain discomfort during the operation.
  • Before the examination, routine examinations such as routine blood test and coagulation test should be perfected to exclude contraindications for examination;
  • After the examination, the patient should stay in bed and choose the appropriate position according to the puncture artery site.
  • The artery at the puncture site needs to be bandaged under pressure for 4–6 hours;
  • Postoperative drinking water can be used to speed up the excretion of contrast agent.

How does cavernous hemangioma and strawberry shape capillary hemangioma differentiate?

  • Strawberry hemangioma is the most common form of hemangioma and affects approximately 1 in 100 neonates. It is usually found within a few days or weeks after birth that initially it shows small bright red or deep red spots, but later it gradually grows up and rises above the skin, presenting many lobules, shaped like a strawberry. Hence the name of strawberry-like capillary hemangioma.
  • Strawberry hemangiomas can occur anywhere in the body, but most commonly on the head and face, where they vary in size, are inconspicuous on compression testing, and sometimes ulcerate and bleed on the surface.
  • Cavernous hemangiomas are usually dark blue when located on the body surface and soft to the touch as a sponge. Compression examination can lead to a significant reduction.

How To Prevent Cavernous Hemangioma

Can cavernous hemangioma prevent? How to prevent?

The existing studies have shown that most cavernous hemangiomas are congenital vascular malformations, which are difficult to prevent.


How To Treat Cavernous Hemangioma

What treatment method does cavernous hemangioma have?

Treatments for cavernous hemangiomas include surgical resection, radioisotope therapy, sclerotherapy, hormonal therapy, laser therapy, point coagulation, and others.

Not all cavernous hemangiomas require surgical treatment, and some patients may recover after non-surgical treatment. Therefore, it is best for patients to visit a regular hospital to select an appropriate treatment plan after a detailed evaluation of the condition.

What are the common risks of surgical treatment of cavernous hemangioma?

  • Because of the abundant blood supply of cavernous hemangiomas, the most common risk for their surgery is intraoperative and postoperative hemorrhage. Severe bleeding can lead to hemorrhagic shock, life-threatening.
  • Intraoperative bleeding can result in unclear visual field during the operation, making it difficult for the tumor to be completely removed, or even suspending the operation due to bleeding, thus resulting in a high recurrence rate of patients after operation.
  • Due to the unclear boundary between some cavernous hemangiomas and the surrounding normal tissues, in order to completely remove the tumor, it is inevitable to remove some surrounding normal tissues, thus leading to local malformations, deletions and dysfunction in our patient. In particular, cerebral cavernous hemangioma can lead to partial neurological deficits after surgery, such as limb paralysis.

Is there sequela after operation treatment of cavernous hemangioma?

There are sequelae.

  • For cavernous hemangioma of the head and face, local scars or local defects will be left after the operation, affecting the aesthetic appearance of patients.
  • For cerebral cavernous hemangioma, partial loss of neurological function may be left after surgery, such as hemiplegia.

Does cavernous hemangioma need reexamination? How to review?

Need to review.

Reexamination includes detailed physical examination, X-ray, B-scan, MRI, etc. Generally, the reexamination is conducted once every 3–6 months after operation. The reexamination time can be appropriately shortened or extended according to the reexamination situation and the specific condition.

Can cavernous hemangioma be cured?

Can be cured.

Patients with complete surgical resection of the tumor can be cured, and some patients can also be recovered after non-surgical treatment.

Can cavernous hemangioma have a relapse?


Patients with unclear tumor extent and difficulty in complete surgical resection may have postoperative recurrence.


What Should Cavernous Hemangioma Patient Notice In Life

What does cavernous hemangioma need to notice in life?

  • In daily life, attention should be paid to prevent collision and scratching of tumors, and to prevent tumor ulceration, rupture and hemorrhage.
  • Pay attention to keep the tumor local dry, pay attention to clean health, to prevent infection.
  • A healthy, light, easily digestible diet.
  • Cavernous hemangioma located in four limbs, should avoid long standing or strong manual labor, pay attention to rest, when necessary, can wear elastic socks.
  • For cavernous hemangioma located in the oral cavity, less hard food should be taken to avoid bleeding from scratch tumor. Avoid eating too hot, spicy food, prevent ulceration, ulcer formation.

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