Oral Thrush

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Oral Thrush
Body Parts: Head
Medical Subjects: Children's Health Oral Cavity
Overview

What Is Oral Thrush?

Thrush is a common oral disease in children. It is caused by Candida albicans infection and is more common in neonates and infants. It was mainly manifested as a white membrane on the surface of oral mucosa. There was no obvious discomfort during mild infection, and in severe case, the child developed adverse reactions such as fever, reluctance to eat, and difficulty in swallowing.

Cause

What Is The Cause Of Oral Thrush?

What is candida albicans of thrush patient?

Candida albicans, also known as candida albicans, it is a opportunistic pathogens, mean, usually not pathogenic, but a variety of factors (specific conditions) cause low immunity of the body, such as malnutrition, long-term use of strong (medically called broad-spectrum) antibiotics, the use of glucocorticoids (dexamethasone, prednisone, methylprednisolone, etc.), can cause disease.

Why can darling suffer from thrush?

As the baby is born, slowly in the mouth will appear some colonies, a variety of colonies restrict each other, maintain a relative balance. Oral candida is also a normal flora, generally not pathogenic. Neonatal oral pH is low, which is conducive to the growth of Candida albicans. In addition, when the baby suffers from poor oral hygiene, malnutrition or decreased immunity, the original balance of the oral flora will be destroyed and candida will prevail, leading to the possible occurrence of candida infection.

External infection: contact with food, toys, clothing, and pacifiers infected with Candida.

Most neonates are infected due to birth canal infection (i.e., infection caused by fungi contacting the mother's vagina during childbirth), or because of unclean nipples during lactation, carrier of bacteria on the fingers of the feeder, and contamination of the nipple or feeding bottle.

Which immunodeficiency conditions may cause recurrent thrush in your child?

Severe combined immunodeficiency, chronic mucocutaneous candidiasis, and other immunodeficiency conditions can cause recurrent thrush in the child. But even if the baby repeatedly thrush does not heal, parents also need not too nervous, immediately associated with these immunodeficiency. Because in general, the immune deficiency of the baby will appear repeated diarrhea, repeated respiratory infections, pneumonia and other symptoms, the symptoms will be more serious than thrush. Therefore, if there are children with repeated diarrhea, pneumonia and so on, accompanied by repeated attacks or persistent thrush in the disease, the possibility of immunodeficiency should be considered.

Can asthma or rhinitis spray cause thrush?

Not all asthma or rhinitis sprays contain glucocorticoids.

Hormone-containing asthma sprays, if used improperly for a long time, can cause mold infections in the mouth, which can cause thrush. Therefore, after using asthma spray, one should pay attention to cough and avoid hormone drugs staying in the mouth. Thrush is rarely caused by proper use of asthma spray.

Rhinitis spray is mainly applied to the nasal cavity and hardly causes thrush.

Symptom

What Is The Symptoms Of Oral Thrush?

What symptom does thrush patient have?

Thrush is characterized by the milky white membrane of the oral mucosa, with normal skin around the white membrane that looks a bit like a lump of milk. The macula is punctate or confluent into sheets and can appear on the tongue, cheeks, palate, and intralabial mucosa.

Generally, there is no pain or other uncomfortable feelings, but some babies suffer from pain due to complicated stomatitis and angular stomatitis with increased outlet water.

For a serious baby, it can be seen that most or all of the oral mucosa is covered by the macular membrane, and even spread to the pharynx, larynx, esophagus, trachea, lung, etc. The spread of thrush to the throat may affect swallowing, breathing and other functions, and may even be life-threatening.

Can thrush cause fever?

Thrush generally does not cause fever. However, if the baby's thrush is serious, in addition to the oral cavity but also spread to the lower respiratory tract, at this time can appear fever, but usually accompanied by dyspnea, cough and other symptoms. This is very rare.

Thrush is sometimes associated with respiratory or gastrointestinal infections such as fever, cough, diarrhea, or baby thrush itself is due to respiratory or gastrointestinal infections that decrease the baby's immunity and therefore may present with fever and other symptoms of respiratory or gastrointestinal infections.

Can thrush cause other diseases?

Thrush lasts too long, and the baby may have decreased resistance due to discomfort that affects rest, eating, and mood, thus causing other diseases.

Repeated thrush or thrush is heavier, suggesting that the baby may have low immunity. Due to the baby's low immunity, respiratory tract infection, digestive tract infection and other diseases may occur.

Detect

How To Check Oral Thrush?

What does thrush darling need to do to check?

Thrush generally does not need to be examined.

If your baby's thrush recurs, especially if it is accompanied by repeated fever or repeated respiratory tract infections, you must be alert to whether your baby has low immunity, and then you can carry out related examinations, such as routine blood tests and immunoglobulin tests. However, this situation is relatively rare, the vast majority of long thrush babies are normal immunity of the baby, so there is no need for a recurrence of an immediate examination.

How to distinguish thrush and milk lump?

Milk is generally easy to wipe away, with cotton swabs and other things to wipe off the milk after oral mucosal integrity, smooth, no damage. Thrush is not easy to erase. If you forcibly erase it, you can see that the oral mucosa is flushing and rough, causing pain to the baby.

What is the difference between thrush and oral ulcer?

Infective agent: thrush is caused by candida albicans, and oral ulcer is caused by virus or bacteria.

Symptoms: thrush presents as a white membrane covered by the oral mucosa, and there are generally no obvious uncomfortable symptoms in children. Oral ulcer is red spots at the beginning of congestion, and then gradually for the oral mucosa round or oval shallow small ulcer, slightly concave, surrounded by flush, ulcer will slowly covered with yellow pseudomembrane. The pain is severe and can affect food intake. Some children will have fever, lymph node enlargement and other symptoms.

What does thrush have to do with the milk tinea of darling?

Tinea pedis is not actually caused by fungal infection, and thrush is completely different. Tinea pedis is more common in 1-to 3-month-old babies, and some babies get better after 4 months. It is a form of eczema dermatitis that frequently occurs on the face of small infants and can also occur in other parts of the body. Thrush mainly occurs in the oral cavity, and its etiology is due to fungal infection, which is different from the common sites and etiology of tinea pedis.

Prevention

How To Prevent Oral Thrush?

How to prevent thrush?

  • For neonates, care should be taken to keep the nipple and nipple clean, as well as the hands of the feeding person. Routine cleaning is enough (wash hands with clean water and washing liquid).
  • Keep the room ventilated.
  • Baby appropriate outdoor activities, the sun, enhance immunity.
  • Reasonable use of antibiotics (anti-inflammatory drugs), do not literally use anti-inflammatory drugs, hormones and other drugs.
  • Vitamin B2 and vitamin C can be appropriately added to enhance the body's immunity.

Can the darling of thrush prevent through filling zinc?

Zinc, an important trace element involved in immune function, plays an important role in the repair of skin and mucosa. Baby thrush is generally mild, remove the causes of thrush and topical oral medicine, generally can recover well, no need for additional zinc. If your baby's thrush recurs, be alert to whether there is zinc deficiency in your baby's body. At this time, you can give your baby some zinc supplements according to the general routine zinc dose to promote your baby's thrush recovery and prevent the next attack.

Babies with thrush do not need to clean or wash their mouth with sodium bicarbonate solution often to prevent infection.

Because the human body has a strong self-regulation ability, various resident bacteria in the oral cavity can breath and compete with each other to maintain the balance of colonies in the oral cavity, thereby stabilizing the human body and preventing diseases. Therefore, it is not necessary to use sodium bicarbonate solution to clean the mouth regularly or irregularly to prevent thrush, except for certain special cases, such as chemotherapy drugs for leukemia patients.

Can thrush be prevented by disinfecting toys and clothes?

Within one year old, the baby likes to chew toys or eat hands. at this time, if there are candida albicans on clothes and toys, the baby will be easily infected with candida albicans and get thrush after eating it. At this stage, the toys and clothes that the baby comes into contact with should be kept clean so as to prevent diseases from entering your mouth. At the same time should pay attention to nursing health. The cause of thrush in addition to external factors, the baby's immune state is more important. Therefore, the more important aspect is to enhance the baby's autoimmune, improve disease resistance.

Treatment

How To Treat Oral Thrush?

Does thrush darling need to go to a hospital?

If your baby's thrush is mild and does not affect eating and leads a normal life, you can observe it for 2 or 3 days at home after removing some possible factors causing thrush (such as cleaning toys and feeding bottles). If thrush tends to increase, or the baby cries, is uncomfortable and affects food intake, we suggest that you go to a hospital for further examination to confirm the diagnosis and give medication.

Which department should I visit for thrush?

The baby has thrush and needs to see a pediatrician. Adults can go to dental.

What does the darling of thrush need to prepare before seeing a doctor?

Medical history of the baby: when did thrush occur, and any other accompanying symptoms such as fever, cough, and dyspnea? Whether there has been a similar situation before. Whether there has been repeated infection in the past.

Personal data of the baby: such as birth history of the newborn, allergy history, medication taboo, etc.

Under what circumstances does a baby with thrush need to see a doctor immediately?

Baby repeatedly cry noisy, refused to eat, appear mental disorders, etc.

Baby is febrile and/or has a barking cough, dyspnea, cyanosis, etc.

How to treat thrush?

  • Nystatin is a drug for the treatment of fungi, with the strongest effect on Candida albicans, and it can destroy the normal metabolism of Candida albicans to play a role in sterilization. There is no suspension in China. In clinic, it is usually ground and mixed with cod-liver oil to make into a suspension, which is applied to the affected part four times a day, for seven to 14 consecutive days. The effect is better. Older children may gargle with nystatin suspension 4 times a day. Nystatin is a prescription drug that requires a qualified pharmacy or hospital to purchase.
  • Oral antifungal therapy: Oral antifungal agents may be required if the baby has a severe thrush or if topical application of a liniment is unsatisfactory. It is recommended that parents consult a doctor before using the product, and do not purchase it without authorization. For example, thrush has a wide range, is repeatedly infected, and has poor local medication effect. Please come to the hospital in time to explain the occurrence and development of thrush as well as the poor medication effect. The doctor will give diagnosis and treatment advice according to the specific situation.
  • For children with recurrent thrush, the first thing to look for is the cause (for example, the presence of long-term broad-spectrum antibiotics, hormones, and immune deficiency). Diet and oral hygiene are very important, otherwise, will attack repeatedly.

What side effect does the drug that is used for treating thrush have?

The medicament for treating thrush is mainly nystatin, a medicament for treating fungi. It is usually prepared by doctors as a suspension for external use and is not absorbed by the skin mucosa and gastrointestinal tract, so there is no obvious adverse reaction. Even if swallowed by the baby, no obvious adverse reactions. However, if a large dose is taken, adverse reactions such as diarrhea, nausea and vomiting may appear in the digestive tract, and the drugs will disappear after being reduced or stopped.

How long can thrush restore commonly?

The course of thrush varies according to children's immunity and the severity of the disease. Mild thrush usually disappears after about 3 days of medication. Some babies recover slowly, taking 7–10 days.

How long does the drug that treats thrush want to use commonly?

Most of the baby's thrush disappeared around 3 days after the drug was used. At this time, the parents should not stop the drug casually because of no scruples about the side effects of the drug, because there are a small number of Candida albicans which have not been completely eliminated and may make a comeback. Therefore, it needs to be continued for 3–7 days under the condition of symptom improvement, with the total treatment course generally lasting for 1–2 weeks.

How does thrush attack repeatedly do?

  • Some recurrent thrush is due to parents not standardized drug use or because the baby's symptoms improved without drug withdrawal, so this situation should pay attention to the rational use of drugs, with enough treatment.
  • Find out the possible factors causing the recurrence of thrush, such as whether it is infected by the mother's nipples, or by toys, bottles, and find out the reason, pay attention to clean. Keep the room ventilated, clean and reasonable humidity.
  • Take your baby outdoors to build up your health.
  • Diet supplement is rich in vitamins, trace elements of vegetables, fruits, enhance baby nutrition.
  • Reasonable use of antibiotics (anti-inflammatory drugs), do not literally use anti-inflammatory drugs, hormones and other drugs.
  • Babies with weak bodies, poor immunity and frequent illnesses can use drugs to improve their immunity and supplement vitamins and trace elements to improve their disease resistance. However, it is not recommended that all babies take medicines and various health care products to improve immunity. If the baby is not very picky about and partial to food, the various nutrients absorbed in the daily diet can completely provide the body with enough nutritional energy.
  • If your baby has recurrent thrush, especially if it is accompanied by recurrent respiratory tract infections, digestive tract infections, skin infections, and so on, you need to see a doctor in time to determine whether there is an immune deficiency, such as chronic cutaneous mucosal candidiasis.

Can probiotics treat thrush?

Probiotics can improve the intestinal microenvironment and maintain the balance of the normal intestinal flora. Some probiotics can also synthesize vitamins and biological enzymes in the intestinal tract to promote intestinal health. However, its efficacy in the treatment of superficial oral infections such as thrush is uncertain, so probiotics are not required to treat thrush.

Life

What Should Patients With Thrush Pay Attention To In Life?

How does thrush darling need to nurse?

Slight thrush generally has no uncomfortable symptoms, and it is generally recommended to clean the mouth with normal saline before and after lactation, and pay attention to rest.

The diet does not need to be adjusted. If complications (such as stomatitis and angular stomatitis) or thrush aggravation occur, fever, pain and other uncomfortable symptoms will appear. The runny or semi-runny food with light and good digestion can be used, such as meat porridge, rice paste, vegetable and fruit paste and so on.

For a small number of babies, fever, pain and other uncomfortable symptoms will appear because of complications (such as stomatitis and angular stomatitis) or increased thrush, or crying and agitation and irritability will appear because of the discomfort. Parents should keep a calm mind and pay attention to comfort. Play with your baby and read to distract your attention. Keep the environment clean, comfortable and ventilated. Wash your hands and toys. Toys can be cleaned according to the daily way of cleaning, can use 2% sodium bicarbonate solution soak or rinse.

What should thrush darling notice on food?

Under normal circumstances, you can give a normal diet. Pay attention to food, tableware (milk) health. If complications (such as stomatitis and angular stomatitis) or thrush aggravation occur, the diet can be given with light, easily digested and vitamin-rich food, and the flowing or semi-flowing food is preferred, such as meat porridge, rice paste, vegetable and fruit paste, etc.

Take care of drinking water properly. After eating, you can drink a small amount of water or clean your mouth with warm water.

If the baby refuses to take food or cannot take food due to oral pain due to complications (such as stomatitis and angular stomatitis), necessary water and energy shall be supplemented by intravenous infusion when necessary.

Can thrush infect?

Thrush is not contagious. If there are two babies in the family, one will get thrush and the other will not need to be isolated. Keep the environment ventilated. Keep the toys clean and wash your hands before eating. However, if another baby has a history of recurrent thrush, it is better not to have close contact for the time being.

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