What Is Sinusitis In Children?
What is sinusitis in children?
Sinusitis in children, also known as pediatric sinusitis, refers to sinusitis in childhood, in which the paranasal sinuses are qi-containing bony cavities distributed around the nasal cavities, with four pairs in total, all of which are communicated with the nasal cavities and have the effects of moistening and warm inhaled air, participating in facial modeling, supporting the inside of the head, and reducing the weight of the head.
Studies have shown that sinusitis is more common in children and is related to such reasons as children's special physiological structure and immune function development. In addition to the common nasal symptoms such as nasal congestion and purulent nasal discharge, it can also be combined with other manifestations such as headache, cough and listlessness. It is easy to be misdiagnosed as cold. Active symptomatic treatment is needed in treatment. Surgical treatment is also feasible when the etiology is clear and the symptoms are severe.
Is sinusitis common in children?
It's very common, it's common in children.
Are colds and sinusitis in children the same disease?
Cold and sinusitis in children are not exactly the same.
Cold usually refers to common cold, and acute upper respiratory tract infectious disease caused by virus infection. The clinical manifestations include sore throat, cough, stuffy nose, sneezing, runny nose, fever, headache, etc. Generally, it can heal itself within one week.
Sinusitis in children can be secondary to a cold, and the etiology is not limited to viral infection, but can be combined with bacterial infection, allergy, adenoid hypertrophy and other reasons.
What Is The Cause Of Sinusitis In Children?
- It is mostly caused by acute upper respiratory tract infection, acute sinusitis failing to be treated in time or effectively, or repeated and persistent attacks. The sinus ostium in children is relatively large, and the pathogen I Ching sinus ostium invades the sinus.
- Hypertrophy or infection of the tonsils and adenoids may cause nasal obstruction that affects the normal function and activity of the nasal and sinus mucosa and cilia.
- Allergic reaction: hypersensitivity reaction, commonly known as allergy, with which most children suffer from sinusitis, such as asthma and allergic rhinitis. Can cause nasal and sinus mucosal edema, sinus drainage disorders, lead to sinusitis.
- Immunodeficiency: Children have poor resistance and adaptability to the outside world, and are vulnerable to cold, upper respiratory tract infection and other infectious diseases.
- Lower respiratory tract infection and chronic inflammation: chronic bronchitis and bronchiectasis and sinusitis in children are causal and interact with each other.
- Gastroesophageal reflux disease: also an important cause of sinusitis in children.
- Nasal foreign body and secondary infection after nasal trauma.
What Is The Symptoms Of Sinusitis In Children?
What are the manifestations of sinusitis in children?
The most important manifestations include cough and nasal symptoms.
- Cough: Cough at night is more severe and can occur during the day. When only cough at night, we should pay attention to the occurrence of nasal drip or reactive airway disease.
- Nasal symptoms: Nasal discharge and postnasal drip, nasal congestion and/or congestion can be seen.
- Others: facial or head pain, which cannot be expressed by infants, can be manifested as irritability, crying, and vomiting. It can be accompanied by fever, and in serious cases, behavioral abnormalities can occur, such as mental malaise, irritability, denial of food, and even convulsions, and even hearing can be affected. Long-term nasal obstruction and mouth-opening breathing can lead to maxillofacial, chest, and intellectual dysplasia in children.
What disease can sinusitis in children cause?
Sinusitis in children can be complicated with otitis media, lower respiratory tract infection, ocular infection, decreased vision, and even intracranial infection.
What conditions need to be distinguished from sinusitis in children?
Sinusitis in children should be distinguished from common acute upper respiratory tract infection, allergic rhinitis, fungal sinusitis, etc.
How To Check Sinusitis In Children?
How to diagnose sinusitis in children?
The diagnosis can be made by general doctors after other diseases are excluded according to the history, symptoms and signs as well as the corresponding examinations. If the child has a cold for more than 7 days, the symptoms such as nasal obstruction and nasal discharge do not reduce but aggravate after routine treatment, and even a lot of yellow pus discharge. Sinusitis should be suspected, and relevant examinations should be conducted for further clarification.
What examinations should be done for children with sinusitis?
Children, especially infants, cannot express themselves, so it is particularly important to communicate with parents, including questions about medical history and symptoms, and cooperate with relevant examinations.
- Nasal and pharyngeal examination: nasal endoscopy is feasible for older children and anterior nasal endoscopy is feasible for younger children if they cannot cooperate. Main observation of nasal mucosa with and without congestion, swelling, the nature and location of nasal discharge, whether there is nasal polyps, adenoid hypertrophy, pharyngeal can see back pus nasal discharge, tonsil is swollen, etc.
- Allergological examination: It is significant for diagnosis and treatment to judge whether the child is of atopic constitution and the allergen.
- The imaging examination was mainly sinus CT: the X-ray examination had little significance for the diagnosis of sinusitis, and it was replaced by sinus CT examination. Sinus CT can clearly show the nasal cavity and paranasal sinus, such as sinus mucosal hypertrophy, sinus orifice (the opening through which the paranasal sinus communicates with the nasal cavity) obstruction, and decreased transparency of the sinus cavity, all of which support sinusitis.
- Blood tests such as routine blood test and C-reactive protein are helpful to understand the inflammation, guide medication and judge the curative effect.
Because children with sinusitis often have other diseases, other examinations for related diseases should be perfected according to the combined manifestations of children other than the nose.
How To Prevent Sinusitis In Children?
Can sinusitis in children be prevented?
- Timely and thoroughly treat cold and upper respiratory tract infection, and thoroughly treat tonsillitis when it recurs.
- Adhere to wash a face with cold water, enhance the disease resistance of nasal mucosa.
- Blow your nose should not be too hard, should press one side of the nostrils, slightly hard blow outside.
- If the nasal discharge is too thick or the weather is dry, use saline to spray and wash the nose.
- Try to avoid public places with dense population that are not ventilated.
- Appropriate physical exercise to enhance their resistance to reduce the occurrence of sinusitis in children.
How to prevent other diseases in children with sinusitis?
Diagnose as early as possible, treat thoroughly as soon as possible, and pay attention to regular outpatient follow-up to reduce the occurrence of complications.
How To Treat Sinusitis In Children?
Which department should children with sinusitis see?
Pediatric or otorhinolaryngology visits are generally preferred.
Does children with sinusitis need to be hospitalized?
Generally not required unless indicated for surgery requiring hospitalization.
How to treat sinusitis in children.
The main purpose of treatment for sinusitis in children is to restore the normal physiological function of nasal sinus, eliminate the infectious pathogens, and prevent the complications from persistent disease. Medication should be taken as the main treatment, together with nasal normal saline irrigation. Drug treatment mainly includes the following aspects:
- Antibiotic treatment: consideration should be given to the combination of bacterial infection with purulent nasal discharge, and the drug should be used in a sufficient amount and sufficient course of treatment, generally for at least 10 days, such as amoxicillin or cephalosporins, such as cefpodoxime proxil, and attention should be paid to the presence of drug allergy.
- Nasal glucocorticoids: can alleviate inflammation of nasal mucosa and reduce edema, but cannot be used for a long time, such as mometasone furoate aqueous nasal spray.
- Decongestant: It can relieve local congestion and is usually used for 3–5 days but cannot exceed 7 days, to inhibit nasal cilia movement, such as ephedrine nasal drops.
- Mucus expeller: It can promote and improve cilia removal function, dilute purulent nasal discharge, and promote discharge, such as Cherno (eucalyptus Caragana Pinene Enteric Coated Soft Capsule).
- Antihistamines: use in children with allergic factors such as chlorphenamine.
If the effect of medical treatment is poor, or there are nasal polyps, tonsil and adenoid hypertrophy, surgery can be considered.
What Should Children With Sinusitis Pay Attention To In Life?
In the diet, to eat rich nutrition, easy to digest food, not picky about food, food diversification, try to reduce spicy excitant food.
Pay attention to keep warm, avoid catching cold blowing, etc., regular life rest, ensure adequate sleep, autumn and winter season when the weather is dry can use humidifier to maintain indoor appropriate humidity.
Sinusitis in children is prone to causing reoccurrence, requiring follow-up examination as well as general outpatient re-examination of nasal cavity and pharynx as well as blood tests.