Tourette Syndrome (Tic Disorders,TS,)

Tourette Syndrome

What Is Tourette Syndrome?

Tourette Syndrome, also known as tic disorder and facial muscle tic and vocal cord tic syndrome, is a nervous system disease. Children, adolescents and adults with this condition tend to make sounds and behaviors that they do not want or control. This sound and movement is medically called twitching.

The etiology of this disease is unknown, and it mainly occurs in childhood, mainly manifested as sudden, repeated rapid and involuntary muscle twitches in any part of the body, and some people even make noises unconsciously when having an attack.

When patients have Tourette's syndrome, they will feel shame and remorse due to the pressure from the outside world. At this time they need more support and encouragement from the people around them. Please get along with them without prejudice, and please respect them and not spread their privacy.


What Is The Cause Of Tourette Syndrome?

The etiology and pathogenesis of tourette syndrome are still not very clear. It is related to genetic factors, neurotransmitter imbalance, psychological factors and environmental factors, which may be a syndrome caused by the interaction of multiple factors in the development process.

What are the psychosocial factors influence of patients with tourette syndrome?

For children with tourette syndrome, it is often the first time that due to severe psychological factors, children in the family, school and society encounter parents who are too strict in discipline, too picky and demanding, and the requirements of schools and parents exceed the actual level, which can cause children's tension and anxiety, further leading to tourette syndrome, or being startled, beaten and scolded by parents and teachers.

Is tourette syndrome hereditary?

Tourette syndrome is inherited. We think genetic inheritance is the main reason for tourette syndrome, but so far we have not found any gene or genes that cause tourette syndrome. We also know that the patient's environment and circumstances greatly affect the severity of the disease. The most appropriate view is that both genes and environment are important factors for inducing tourette syndrome.

Is infection likely to induce tourette syndrome?

We have observed, in very rare cases, the sudden onset of a tic following certain streptococcal infections. But this observation has not yet been proven and more studies are needed to confirm the link between them.


What Are The Symptoms Of Tourette Syndrome?

What are the manifestations of patients with tourette syndrome?

Usually, the head and face are the earliest sites for twitching, such as frowning, blinking, nasal shrugging and pouting.

Patients with tourette syndrome may present with such manifestations as shaking hands, stamping feet, kicking legs, and shrugging shoulders. In addition, due to the twitching of the vocal organs and diaphragm, the patient will still make a clear voice, chicken calls, hiccups, and even make some unusual circumstances that are difficult to understand.

Can tourette syndrome patients control their tics by themselves?

Yes, the patient's will control it so that the tic will not attack in a short time.

Do tourette syndrome patients still twitch when they sleep?

No, the twitch disappears when the patient falls asleep.

What are the types of tourette syndrome?

Tic disorder mainly has the following types:

  • Transient tic disorder: it usually occurs after the age of 3, and is the most common and milder type, manifesting as simple motor tic, with the initial part being the alternating tic of the facial features, such as winking, frowning, pouting, rictus, neck extension, and shrugging. The tic aggravates when the patient is emotionally nervous or has physical diseases, and the tic disappears after falling asleep.
  • Chronic motor tic or vocal tic: The symptoms have already affected the upper and lower limbs, and trunk, and the symptoms occur frequently for more than one year. This type of tic has seriously affected children's learning and life.
  • Combined tic disorder of vocalization and multiple movements: Children often have slight facial tic that begins to gradually spread to the neck, shoulder, upper and lower limbs, and trunk to form multi-site complex tic, and some have tic together with sudden impulsive movements, vocalization tic tic and motor tic. The slow course of disease, repeated symptoms and frequent attacks have a great impact on children's body and mind.

How To Check For Tourette Syndrome?

How does tourette syndrome diagnose?

Doctors confirm the presence of tourette syndrome by observing the patient's twitches or by referring to the description given by the patient's family or the patient. At present, there is no test that can confirm the diagnosis of this disease. Some doctors require some tests to rule out other diseases.

What are the general tests required of tourette syndrome?

When patients with tic disorder go to hospital for the first time, they will undergo psychological measurement through some scales and blood trace elements such as blood iron, zinc, calcium, magnesium and lead will be measured. Children's electroencephalogram can be carried out in conditional hospitals.


How To Prevent Tourette Syndrome?

Since the specific etiology of this disease has not been clarified, there is currently no effective prevention measure, and timely detection and intervention seem to be more important.


How To Treat Tourette Syndrome?

Which department should patients with tourette syndrome go to?

If a child is suspected of having tourette syndrome, he should go to Pediatric Neurology, Pediatrics, or Child Health Care.

Should tourette syndrome be treated?

Children whose symptoms are mild and do not affect their study and life do not require medication, but require active intervention, such as adjusting environmental factors and eliminating psychological factors that are unfavorable to the child.

When vocalization and multiple sports are combined with tic disorders, medication and psychotherapy are required under the guidance of a specialist.

How to Treat tourette syndrome with Drugs?

The main drugs are haloperidol, sulpiride, tiapride or risperidone, and the treatment should be started from a small dose and gradually increased to the effective dose. When the symptoms are under control, they should be gradually reduced and maintained for a period of time (three months or more), which can bring many children back to normal.

Other drugs include pimozide, clonidine, fenbutazine, clonazepam, topiramate and tricyclic antidepressants.

DBS therapy (brain pacemaker) can be tried in severe children who cannot be effectively controlled by individual drugs.

Is it possible to cure tourette syndrome?

There is currently no cured case of tourette syndrome, but treatment can effectively reduce the severity of tics and other related symptoms. Much progress has been made in understanding how to treat tics.

Will tourette syndrome be eliminated by itself?

The symptoms of most patients will improve significantly in the late teens or early 20s, and some patients even disappear completely. Only a small percentage of patients still have severe and persistent cramps after entering adulthood.


What Should Patients With Tourette Syndrome Pay Attention To In Life?

What should patients with tourette syndrome and their families pay attention to at ordinary times?

  • Don't beat and scold children, give more encouragement and confidence.
  • Don't reinforce the symptoms, especially when the child twitches, to do as if nothing had happened.
  • Make reasonable work and rest time, ensure enough sleep.
  • Communicate with teachers in time to avoid unreasonable treatment of children in school.
  • Pay attention to nutrition, increase outdoor activities.

Do tourette syndrome students need a special education?

Patients with tourette syndrome have the same intelligence as normal people, but there are many patients who require special education. Tic, adhd, learning difficulty, disruptive behavior, anxiety and mood disorders can all affect learning. Alleviating these symptoms or minimizing their effects through appropriate regulation can improve the educational outcomes of patients. For those children with special educational needs, special educational methods can be formulated to enable them to receive education according to the learning characteristics of the sick children.

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